Known and unknown brain potential
1. Brain is
The portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed within the cranium, continuous with the spinal cord, and composed of gray matter and white matter. It is the primary center for the regulation and control of bodily activities, receiving and interpreting sensory impulses, and transmitting information to the muscles and body organs. It is also the seat of consciousness, thought, memory, and emotion.
The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing
Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
2. Intellectual power; intelligence
• jelly-like structured hydrophilic mass
• ventricular system as reservoirs for liquid
• blood supply system
• hematoencephalic barrier
• high differentiation of white and gray matter
• closed rigid cranium
• a system of active bioelectrical conduction
• myelin membranes of nerves as protectors of the direct and tangent electrical insulation
• a black box for collection, processing and decision making
• information gathering by conductive ways, sensory systems
• information processing at the level of conditional and unconditional reflexes
• level of information processing - spinal and cerebral
• decision making - motor system
• analysis and synthesis of generalized information from various sensors
• collecting and archiving information
• ability to self-starting on primitive level and the necessity in society for further development
• ability to teach the system: the experience borrowing and applied uses of the experience, gained practical skills
• ability to self-development and creativity at some point of the accumulation of knowledge and experience
Brain like a model:
a complex biological object with properties that are intrinsic only to him:
• plasticity, adaptogenity, moderate inertia
• harmonic orchestra with many members, who are playing professionally, simultaneously and in unison
The brain should be considered as a neural network at the current stage of the science development (nerves, nerve stems, conductive ways, spinal cord and brain).
• The brain is a Commander-in-Chief of the whole organismBrain and bodyThe brain could not function separately from the body since it loses sense of its existence
• The body provides continuous blood supply and feeding for the brain, and a feedback system
• The body requires the brain as a control system
Models for brain functioning
Primitive (minimal brain function):Movement available, but uncontrollable
• Organs of senses function independently (sight, hearing, touch, smell?, taste?)
• No speech and walking
• Vestibular apparatus and the system of coordination are not functioning
• High defenselessness of the system (no thermoregulation, adaptability, high level of sleepiness as a variant of rapid exhaustion and necessity in information processing)
• Primitive emotions: smile, cry
• Unmanageable functions of pelvic organs
• Models for brain functioning
A model of the body self-serving
(a 1-year child):
Establishing self-control and self-regulation of systems of the individual physical activity: walking, movement coordination, feeding, stool, urination, primitive language and emotions
• Primary synchronizing reactions (Joy - hops, laughs, claps: falls - pain, fear, mourning, needs for compassion)
• The need in formation of external virtual neuronetwork for development of neurosensory systems
• Change of conditioned reflexes into unconditional acquired skills (bitter, pain, education of society)
• Society is necessary for further development (the Mowgli’s phenomenon)
• Models for brain functioning
A model of knowledge and experience acquirement
Physical body continues to develop and grow, gradually adapting its vascular, endocrine, bone-and-muscular and nervous systems to new conditions of the existence (an effect of a scale)
• Formation of reactivity of these systems depending on physical loadings
• Search for algorithms of emotional exit (processing and reconsideration of stress situations)
• Appearance and further development of short- and long-term memory
• Dominant cognitive activity - the brain learns! - neuronetworks are trained and formed
• The first independent management decisions of the brain
• Models for brain functioning
Creative brain: (20-50 years)
Harmonious functioning of the whole brain
• Harmonious functioning of the neuronetwork (synchronization, synergy, speed of operation)
• Formation and implementation of new ideas
• Keeping stable balance (body-brain, arteriovenous-hydrodynamic, energy-neurodynamic, intellectual-physical)
• External level of communication holds some neuronetworks in active state (professional memory)
• Models for brain functioning
A gradual decline in the level of blood and energy supply for the body on the whole and for the brain in particular.
• Professional memory dominates over the everyday, low adaptability to unforeseen events, worsening of short-term memory.
• The intensification of all negative character traits as a reduction in braking effect of the cerebral cortex.
• When restoring the blood supply for the brain there is a spontaneous recollection of student skills and abilities.
• Psychosomatic disorders in case of loss of orientation in the life
• Physical illnesses as the system self-destruction when the brain loses the interest to the life – “blocking the future”.
Levels of the
• macrolevel - gross structural elements of the brain - convolutions, ventricles, cerebellum, etc. - that are visible to the naked eye on CT, MRI
• microlevel - microsections- static images of a pathohistological picture
• At the current stage of development there are no any algorithms for diagnostics, imaging and global analysisof neuronetworks.
• There are theoretical mathematical models for neurointelligence that can not be yet confirmed lifetime and experimentally.
2. Hierarchical level
• There is an accurate system of subordination in the neuronetwork.
• The brain is in the upper rank of the hierarchy
• The spinal cord is responsible for somatic state, functioning of organs and systems, with sympathic-parasympathetic vegetative neuronetwork.
• All vitally important reactions and reflexes are locked at the spinal cord.
The known brain:
Science, that are studying the brain - neurology, psychiatry, neurophysiology, cybernetics, psychology
• There is a selective view to the brain depending on the angle of a discipline
• A rough structural static approach at the macro level dominates (CT-MRI) for the brain examination
• Any visual brain pathology is regarded as a gross defect in the system.
Lack of a generalized view to the entire brain and its functioning
• Lack of view to the dynamics of the brain as a living system in short and long period of time
• Lack of options for modeling of the pathological brain
• We know almost nothing and not able to identify neuronetworks of the living brain
The known brain but:
• short-term preservation of a walking function after traumatic injury of the spinal cord (car accident)
• appearance of the first movement in paralyzed limbs of a comatose patient during his sleep
• renewal of movements in limbs at a stroke - from large to small joints, with apallic syndrome - on the contrary
• A patient in coma can "hear" and remember emotional language, perhaps emotional "message" and somatically responses
• Schizophrenia patients almost are not able to feel their own body and are emotionally vain
• The pain system, except for the signal, can be used as a training
• The system of deep sense requires constant presence of gravitational forces
• Vibratory feeling are not used in particular, but with multiple sclerosis, it is the first to suffer.
Violation of the structural integrity of the brain:
• Wonders with a perforating brain injury (by a spear, bullets, etc.)
• A structurally defective brain with preservation of all its functions
• Slowly growing brain tumor without neurological deficit with primary signs of inertial thinking and character changes.
• Neurological deficit occurs catastrophically.
• Multiple sclerosis - presence of demyelination foci and intermittent neurological symptoms
• A phenomenon of a neurosurgical intervention and preservation of existing functional relationships
• Phantom pain in a stump after amputation of a limb
• A phenomenon of resection of the injured left frontal lobe of the brain –
• right-sided hemiplegia,
• retrograde amnesia (loss of the memory of the past 30 years),
• imperative urge to urination,
• subconscious engagement of a paralyzed hand to hold a baby,
• actual thinking,
• lack of the frontal psyche,
• language restoration via English-speaking,
• ability to learn and self-control
• overcoming disorientation in time and space,
• keeping professional memory
• A phenomenon of early traumatic or inflammatory lesions of the brain at the stage of primitive brain
• loss of all acquired brain functions
• absence of primary visual and auditory reactions
• expressed generalized movement phenomena
• arrest in somatic and mental development
• lack of cognitive function of the brain
• expressed defencelessness and attachment to the mother with unconscious feeling of comfort from inaction and formation of benefits from the disability status
• with minimal launching of brain functions - the tricks to avoid mental exertion take the first place
The unknown brain:
According to the neuronetworks functioning
• Energy balancing of energy supply and energy consumption
• Adequate blood supply in accordance with functional needs (blood supply in rest, with physical and mental loads)
• Microcirculation in the cerebral cortex as a cause of higher cortical dysfunction
• Priority criteria for making managerial decisions (a great deed or an affect of Matrosov, Pavlik Morozov)
• Brain and mental development
• Brain pathology according
to the systemic approach Autism - priorities of internal feedback over external, lack of startup of the external communication system
• Epilepsy – a combination of deregulation in vascular, energy, neurodynamic and hydrodynamic systems on macro and microlevels, which causes loss of connections between subsystems and consequently chaotic and not always adequate for decision making. Hyperbolized and inadequate feedback from the environment.
• A model of sudden structural brain lesions:
• Loss of communication in neuronetworks
• Transition to economic energetic mode
• Shocking brain - pathological impulsion about disorders, loss of effective algorithms for realization of organizational decisions, the need in accumulation of resources, chaotic somatic reactions of the body (unbalanced pressure, pulse, breathing, digestive system with expressed cachexia, diarrhea as a phenomenon of nondigestible food and others).
• Stabilization of the somatic status with restoration of reliable activity of vital organs
• Blood circulation centralization becomes the partial restoration of regional hemodynamics
• Minimum blood supply for the brain enables to launch minimal deep brain functions
• And then the society is necessary for artificial imposing of algorithms of the body recovery
• Acquiring knowledge, experience, skills, character traits may remain in the memory of the brain
• Thus, the injured brain is a chaos and unpredictability of decisions in neuronetworks.
Brain is:A model of a cyberglobe that is filled with vascular and neural network, placed in a rigid cranium, filled for amortization and rapid stabilization with jelly-like substance and the ventricular system (upper hemisphere) and diffusely dispersed throughout the body (a prototype of the lower hemisphere) with the ultimate peripheral indicators - receptors and capillaries.
Lushchyk U.B., Novytskyy V.V.,Alexeyeva T.S., Francevich K.A.,